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India from mid 18th to mid 19th Century
DCQ: Answer any two questions in about 500 words each.
Question 1. Discuss the main ideas of the Orientalists and the Utilitarians. Did they fulfill the objective of building the British Empire?
Ansser. The Utilitarian’s were not to take the liberal detour to education for the task of ‘civilizing’ and ‘improving’ India. They went back to the basic question of reform of law and landed property to create conditions where the market could flourish. They believed, under the guidance of Jereiny Ekntham, that, a scientific and logical approach to these two problems of law and landed property could create reforms which would satisfy the principle of ‘the greatest good of the greatest number’.
The utilitarian ideas were to have a fundamental influence in mounding the British attitudes towards India. The question of law as an instrument of change was mooted under Bentinck. It was possible, he believed, for judiciary or law to be the instrument of changing Indian practices like Sati and female infanticide. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Mill also supported a restructuring of the land revenue policy in a manner that would be consistent with utilitarian economics. While, on the one hand this meant a direct contact with the mass of cultivators as in Munro’s rotary settlement (see Block IV), on the other hand this meant taxing the landlord along Ricardo’s philosophy. This taxation would be in such a manner that the landlord would not enjoy undue benefit at the cost of manufacture and trade just by virtue of ownership of land. This meant that the landholder would give to the state as tax on land revenue a certain proportion of the net produce.
This doctrine of rent was sought to be put into practice by officers like Pringle in Bombay. Elaborate survey methods were used to calculate the ‘net produce’ from land. Then tax rates were assessed. However, in practice the revenue demand often went very high, sometimes as much as fifty to sixty percent of the produce. This led gradually to the abandonment of complex calculations based on the rent doctrine. From 1840s purely pragmatic and empirical methods derived from the tradition of taxation in respective areas were beginning to be adopted. But, the rent doctrine of the, utilitarian philosophy was not given up in theory.
Inspire of the purely pragmatic and empirical calculation of rent, the justification of rent theory for the calculation was still given. The justification of the theory though did have practical reasons as over the next decades the idea of defining rights and obligations of the tax paying cultivators permanently was relegated to the background. But then the scientific calculations of the utilitarianism were again paradoxically submitted to Munro like consideration of Indian heritage and traditions. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Edward Said’s Orientalism is his most celebrated work that hit the stalls in 1978. It has been influential in about half a dozen established disciplines, especially literary studies (English, comparative literature), history, anthropology, sociology, area studies (mainly Middle East studies) and comparative religion. In Orientalism, Said examines Western representations (fiction and nonfiction) of the Middle Eastern societies and cultures. The book won him universal recognition for innovative and provocative explorations of the interrelationship between texts—literary and otherwise. Said examines these works with reference to the social, political, and economic contexts from which they emerged.
Edward Said, in his book, adopts a continental interdisciplinary approach to literary criticism, using the principles of phenomenology, existentialism and French structuralism to trace out the connections between literature and politics. His theories and methods have tremendously influenced American academic circles especially with regard to literary theory and cultural studies. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Question 2. Mysore and Hyderabad took different trajectories of state formation. Discuss.
Answer. The kingdom of Mysore lay south of Hyderabad. (see map 5). In the 18th century the rulers of Mysore, from the Wodeyars to Tipu Sultan, were to face the expansionist threat of the Marathas on the one hand and that of Hyderabad and Carnatic on the other, while the English were to exploit the situation to their advantage. One of the most well-known eighteenth century personalities is Tipu Sultan, almost a folk-hero symbolising resistance to British aggrandisement and also an object of alignment in British accounts of their rise to power. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Mysore was transformed from a viceroyalty of the Vijaynqgar Empire into an autonomous state by the Wodeyar dynasty. It was left to Haidar Ali and his son Tipu Sultan to establish Mysore as a major military power in the south of India. Haidar was of unaristocratic origin and hostile English contemporaries often termed him an usurper-this has influenced later historians. But he was an usurper in same sense as the dalwai or the prime minister, he replaced in Mysore was an usurper. The dalwai had reduced the titular Wodeyar king to a cipher and like the previous dalwai, Nanjraj, Haidar began as an official serving the state.
He displayed his military genius in strengthening the army, in bringing under control the fiercely independent local chiefs or poligars, and in subjugating Bednove, Sunda, Seva, Can4ra and Guti. His greatest moment of triumph was when he chased the English troiops within five miles of Madras and dictated a treaty in 1769. You will study further dethils of the military and diplomatic exploits of Haidar and Tipu Sultan in Block 3. In this Unit we shall study how Mysore was strengthened and established as a major regional power.
Hyderabad polity seems to have followed a different kind of pattern from Mysore. Here the Mughal influence in the earlier days was more prominent. Normally during the days of Mughal empire the Subadar of Deccan was posted at Hyderabad. An attempt was made to introduce the Mughal administrative system. Inspite of continual Mughal-Maratha conflict and internal tensions this system served to highlight the order of Mughal empire in Deccan. However in the wake of the decline of the Mughal empire this system seems to have come into crisis.
Nizam Asif Jab was first appointed a subadar (in charge of province) by the Mughal emperor in 17113. But only after a military victory over his rival Mughal appointee in 1724 that he cohld take effective charge of the Deccan. After this period he stayed on in Deccan and kent to the Mughal court only after leaving his appointee in charge. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Subsequently, he removed the Mughal officials in Hyderabad and installed his own men. He also assumed the right of making treaties, wars and granting mansabas and titles. Now gradually the Mughal authority was reduced to a symbolic reading of Khutba etc. Bythe time of Nizam Ali Khan (1762-1803) Carnatie, Marathas and Mysore had all settled their territorial claims and some kind of a stable political pattern emerged in Hyderabad.
Question 3. What do you understand by the term deindustrialization during the colonial rule?
Answer. Due to British colonial rule, there was Deindustrialisation of colonial India during the first half of the nineteenth century. India was severely disadvantaged by the benefits of the industrial revolution. Deindustrialisation is the phenomenon of phased reduction or degradation of a nation’s or region’s industrial capacity. It is a type of economic change in which employment in the manufacturing sector declines for a variety of economic or political reasons. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The term “Indian Economic Deindustrialisation” refers to a period of decline in industrial-based activities in the Indian economy that lasted from 1757 to 1947. Traditional handicraft industries began to decline in the 18th century and continued to decline rapidly until the beginning of the 19th century. This article on the Deindustrialisation of Colonial India will look into the nuances of India’s deindustrialization under British rule.
In the true and modern sense of the term, India is not an industrial country. However, by the standards of the 17th and 18th centuries, i.e., before the arrival of Europeans in India, India was the world’s ‘industrial workshop.’IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Furthermore, the “blending of agriculture and handicrafts” characterized India’s traditional village economy.
The British Government systematically slaughtered the village economy’s internal balance. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Traditional handicraft industries slipped from their pre-eminence in the process, and their decline began around the turn of the 18th century and continued rapidly almost to the beginning of the 19th century.
The term deindustrialization referred to the “process of destruction of Indian handicraft industries by competition from British manufactured products during the nineteenth century.” IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The royal courts and urban aristocrats were the primary sources of demand for these handicrafts’ products.
The abolition of the royal court eliminated one source of demand for these crafts’ products and the craftsmen gradually closed their karkhanas. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Following the virtual abolition of demand for the industry as a result of the disappearance of noble courts, the industry wished for a new source of demand from European officials and tourists, as well as from ‘baboos’ and black Indian ‘sahibs.’
The technological revolution that accelerated throughout the nineteenth century in the aftermath of the industrial revolution hastened the decline of traditional handicrafts. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Paper manufacturing, glass manufacturing, iron smelting (in Mysore, Chhota Nagpur, and the Central Provinces), pottery, and other art industries were among those that were unable to make the necessary adjustments to withstand the savage onslaught of imported goods.
Cheap and machine-made imports flooded the Indian market after the Charter Act of 1813 allowing one-way free trade for the British Citizens. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
On the other hand, Indian products found it more and more difficult to penetrate the European markets.
Tariffs of nearly 80 percent were imposed on Indian textiles so that Indian cloth could no longer be cheap. After 1820, European markets were virtually closed to Indian exports. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Some argue that the decline of handicraft industries can also be attributed to flaws in the industrial structure.
For starters, no efforts were made to identify potential markets for products.
Foreigners controlled India’s foreign trade. This meant that Indian artisans and producers were at the mercy of foreign merchants when it came to sales or demand propagation in foreign markets. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Question 4. Discuss the Hindi-Urdu controversy. Did it assume communal overtones?
Answer. The Hindi–Urdu controversy arose in 19th century colonial India out of the debate over whether the Hindi or Urdu language should be chosen as a national language. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Hindi and Urdu are mutually intelligible as spoken languages, to the extent that they are sometimes considered to be dialects or registers of a single spoken language referred to as Hindi-Urdu or sometimes Hindustani. The respective writing systems used to write the languages, however, are different: Hindi is written using Devanagari, whereas Urdu is written using a modified version of the Arabic script, each of which is completely illegible to readers literate only in the other. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Both Modern Standard Hindi and Urdu are literary forms of the Dehlavi dialect of Hindustani. A Persianized variant of Hindustani began to take shape during the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 AD) and Mughal Empire (1526–1858 AD) in South Asia. Known as Deccani in southern India, and by names such as Hindi, Hindavi, and Hindustani in northern India and elsewhere, it emerged as a lingua franca across much of India and was written in several scripts including Perso-Arabic, Devanagari, Kaithi, and Gurmukhi.
The Perso-Arabic script form of this language underwent a standardization process and further Persianization in the late Mughal period (18th century) and came to be known as Urdu, a name derived from the Turkic word ordu (army) or orda and is said to have arisen as the “language of the camp”, or “Zaban-i-Ordu”, or in the local “Lashkari Zaban”. As a literary language, Urdu took shape in courtly, elite settings. Along with English, it became the official language of northern parts of British India in 1837.
Hindi as a standardized literary register of the Delhi dialect arose in the 19th century; the Braj dialect was the dominant literary language in the Devanagari script up until and through the nineteenth century. Efforts by Hindi movements to promote a Devanagari version of the Delhi dialect under the name of Hindi gained pace around 1880 as an effort to displace Urdu’s official position. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The last few decades of the nineteenth century witnessed the eruption of the Hindi–Urdu controversy in the United Provinces (present-day Uttar Pradesh, then known as “the North-Western Provinces and Oudh”). The controversy comprised “Hindi” and “Urdu” protagonists each advocating the official use of Hindustani with the Devanagari script or with the Nastaʿlīq script, respectively. Hindi movements advocating the growth of and official status for Devanagari were established in Northern India. Babu Shiva Prasad and Madan Mohan Malaviya were notable early proponents of this movement.
This, consequently, led to the development of Urdu movements defending Urdu’s official status; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of its noted advocates. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
In 1900, the government issued a decree granting symbolic equal status to both Hindi and Urdu. Hindi and Urdu started to diverge linguistically, with Hindi drawing on Sanskrit as the primary source for formal and academic vocabulary, often with a conscious attempt to purge the language of Persian-derived equivalents. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Deploring this Hindu-Muslim divide, Gandhi proposed re-merging the standards, using either Devanagari or Urdu script, under the traditional generic term Hindustani. Bolstered by the support of the Indian National Congress and various leaders involved in the Indian Independence Movement, Hindi, in the Devanagari script, along with English, replaced Urdu as one of the official languages of India during the institution of the Indian constitution in 1950. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
MCQ: Answer any four questions in about 250 words each.
Question 5. What was the role of the ‘rule of law’ in shaping the British policy in the late 18th and early 19th centuries?
Answer. The Rule of Law meant that the administration was now to be carried out strictly according to certain laws which defined the rights, privileges and obligations of the people, and not according to the personal desires of the rulers. It also meant that in theory at least, nobody was above law. Even the official and those who supervised law, were in theory, accountable to the same set of laws and could be brought before a court of law for violating any law. The law once formulated, could place restrictions on the actions of the rulers.
However, the laws formulated and interpreted were such that they contained enough space for the oppression of the people. As it happened, various bureaucratic misdeeds, did not require a violation of law, they could be done well within the legal rights of the officials. Despite the theoretical principle of “rule of law”, there remained domains of action. e.g. by the police or army, which remained unaffected by restrictions which should have followed from the principles. A great deal of extra-legal continued to be exercised by the police and civil-servants. In fact, under the Rule of Law, legality itself became an instrument of power and oppression.
Equality before law meant that in theory all the citizens irrespective of their caste, status etc. were now placed at an equal footing in the eyes of the law. The concept of equality before law did not of course, include Europeans into its fold. Separate courts and laws were set up for them. In criminal cases they could be tried only by the European Judges. In reality total equality before law could not possibly be implemented. But it did bring about a national equality among. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Question 6. Discuss the failure of the 1857 revolt.
Answer. The revolt of 1857 was the conscious beginning of the Independence struggle against the colonial tyranny of the British. There are various names for the revolt of 1857 – India’s First War of Independence, Sepoy Mutiny, etc. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The revolt began on May 10, 1857, at Meerut as a sepoy mutiny. It was initiated by sepoys in the Bengal Presidency against the British officers.
This war of Independence marked the end of rule by the British East India company. Post this, India was directly ruled by the British government through representatives known as Governor-General. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Causes of Failure of the revolt of 1857
The revolt was eventually not successful in ousting the British from the country because of several factors.
The sepoys lacked one clear leader; there were several. They also did not have a coherent plan by which the foreigners would be routed. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Indian rulers who aided the revolt did not envision any plan for the country after the British were defeated.
Majorly northern India was affected by this revolt. The three presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras remained mostly unaffected. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Causes of Revolt of 1857
The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to various factors which are stated below:
Religious & Social Causes – Racism or racial discrimination was believed to be a major reason for the revolt of 1857 wherein Indians were exploited and were kept away from mixing with Europeans. The whites also started interfering in the religious and cultural affairs of Indians and tortured them as well.
Political Causes – The British expansion had led to the propagation of unjust policies that led to the loss of power of the Nawabs and Zamindars residing at various places of India. The introduction of unfair policies like the policy of Trade and Commerce, the policy of indirect subordination (subsidiary alliance), the policy of war and annexation, the policy of direct subordination (doctrine of lapse), the policy of misgovernance (through which Awadh was annexed) greatly hampered the interests of the rulers of the native states, and they one by one became victims of British expansionism. Therefore, those rulers, who lost their states to the British, were naturally against the British and took sides against them during the revolt.
Economic Factors -There were various reforms in the taxation and revenue system that affected the peasants’ heavily. British Government had imposed and introduced various administrative policies to expand their territory.
Question 7. Was the 18th century in India a ‘dark age’? Comment.
Answer. A school of historians like Irfan Habib, Satish Chandra etc have described the 18th century in India as dark age because there was total anarchy after the downfall of Mughal Empire. The old aged institutions of Mughals were declined and the disintegration of India lead emergence of fragmented kingdoms. There was cultural stagnation as well. These historians point out that there was economic decline in 18th century. The cities were deserted and the century saw the establishment of British rule which was exploitative and repressive.
But Revisionist scholars have criticized the Dark Age Theory and regarded 18th century as age of prosperity because the century saw the emergence of regional kingdoms which were economically much prosperous.
The 18th century has been a subject of historical debate among scholars. It represents a phase of transition between medieval and modern periods. The decline of Mughal power in the 18th century was characterized by the rise of autonomous states during the same period. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Earlier the historians regarded this period as crisis torn but recent researches have tried to study 18th century states as separate entities possessing elements of dynamism and growth. The 18th century has been conventionally viewed as a period of decline anarchy and economic decay or simply put as the Dark Age. It was held at the decline of Mughal state corresponded with an overall decline.! According to James he opined that the coming of the “British rescued India from its gloomy existence.
Question 8. What was the impact of the Charter Act of 1833? Discuss.
Answer. The Industrial Revolution had made Britain a manufacturer of cotton textiles and other factory goods. A vast country like lndia could consume a large number of manufactured goods and provide raw materials as well. Industrialists were keen to conquer the vast lndian markets. The East India Company served the ends of British imperialism. Their restrictive policies had led to the ruin of indigenous industries.
Laissez Faire had become the basic philosophy of the new industrial policy in Britain. There was a popular desire to free trade from restrictions and monopolies. When it was time for the renewal of the Charter in 1833 there was widespread agitation for abolition of the Company and take over of administration by the Crown. A Parliamentary enquiry was held. The political atmosphere in Britain was full of enthusiasm for reforms. The well known Reform Act was passed in 1832.
The country was enjoying the prosperity achieved with the Industrial Revolution. It could afford to adhere to the policy of free trade. Slavery was abolished in the whole of the British empire. The Act of 1833 was a great landmark in the constitutional history on India. The number of members of the Presidency Councils was reduced to two. Bombay and Madras were to keep their separate armies under the Commanders-in-Chief. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
They were to be under the control of the Central Government. The Act provided for the codification of laws in India. There were several type of laws before 1833. There were the English Acts, Presidency Regulations, Hindu Law, Muslim Law, Customary Law etc. By this Act the Governor General was empowered to appoint the Law Commission to study, collect and codify various rules and regulations prevalent in India. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The lndian Penal Code and Codes of Civil and Criminal Law were enacted by the efforts of lndian Law Commission. Section 87 of the Act declared, “that no native or natural born subject of the crown resident in lndia should be by reason only of his religion, place of birth, descent, colour or any of them be disqualified for any place in the company’s service.” It was a momentous declaration. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Lord Morley later described it as the most important lndia Act passed by the British Parliament till 1909. This was not of much practical importhnce, since nothing was done and Indians remained excluded from higher posts in civil and military service. The Charter Act of 1833 made no provision to secure the nomination of Indians to the covenanted services of the company. Yet the clause proclaiming on discrimination was of great importance for it became the sheet-anchor of political agitation in lndia towards the end of the century. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Qustion 9. Did the Permanent Settlement fulfill its objectives? Comment.
Answer. Before the British advent in Bengal, there were a class of Zamindars in Bengal, Bihar and Odisha who collected revenue from land on behalf of the Mughal Emperor or his representative, the Diwan. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
After the Battle of Buxar in 1764, the East India Company was granted the Diwani of Bengal. But then the Company found itself not able to collect revenue from the innumerable number of farmers in rural areas. They also did not have a good understanding of local laws and customs. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The severe Bengal famine of 1770 occurred partly due to this neglect by the Company. Then, Warren Hastings tried to bring in some reforms like the five-yearly inspections. Here, the revenue-collection was awarded through an auction to the person promising the highest revenue. Due to the dangerous implications and effects of such a system, Hastings also experimented with the annual settlement of land. But this too did not improve conditions. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Then, Lord Cornwallis under directions from the then British PM, William Pitt, proposed the Permanent Settlement system in 1786. This came into effect in 1793, by the Permanent Settlement Act of 1793.
Features of the Permanent Settlement Landlords or Zamindars were recognised as the owners of the land. They were given hereditary rights of succession of the lands under them. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The Zamindars could sell or transfer the land as they wished. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The Zamindars’ proprietorship would stay as long as he paid the fixed revenue at the said date to the government. If they failed to pay, their rights would cease to exist and the land would be auctioned off.
The amount to be paid by the landlords was fixed. It was agreed that this would not increase in future (permanent). IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The fixed amount was 10/11th portion of the revenue for the government and 1/10th was for the Zamindar. This tax rate was way higher than the prevailing rates in England.
The Zamindar also had to give the tenant a patta which described the area of the land given to him and the rent he had to pay the landlord. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Question 10. Were the Burma Wars able to fulfill the objectives of the British?
Answer. British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the successive three AngloBurmese wars through the creation of Burma as a province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. The region under British control was known as British Burma.
Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan (Rakhine State) or Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First AngloBurmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province (a chief commissionership) of British India in 1862. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a lieutenant-governorship) in 1897. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. British rule was disrupted during the Japanese occupation of much of the country during World War II. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948.
Burma is sometimes referred to as “the Scottish Colony” owing to the heavy role played by Scotsmen in colonising and running the country, one of the most notable being Sir James Scott. It was also known for the heavy role played by Indian elites in managing and administering the colony, especially while it was still a part of the British Raj; some historians have called this a case of co-colonialism. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Answer. Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyay was born in Birsingha village in Hooghly district of Bengal on September 26, 1820. He belonged to a Hindu Brahmin family, and was born to Thakurdas Bandyopadhyay and Bhagavati Devi. He was not privileged enough to have a gas lamp at his home and the desire to acquire knowledge made him study under the streetlights. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Through scholarships, he made a quick succession and joined Sanskrit College in Calcutta and graduated in the year 1841. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
It took him 12 years to graduate from college as he was also pursuing his part-time job while studying at the same time. He had a qualification in Sanskrit Grammar, literature, dialectics, Vedanta, smriti, and astronomy.
He was also a social reformer, philosopher, philanthropist, and educationalist with a modern vision. He was a person with high morality, honest character, truthfulness, social reform, unselfishness, and liberalism.
Contributions of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar: IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
He contributed to the removal of social justice, upliftment of women, allowing widow remarriage, and advocating against polygamy. He played a major part in being appointed as the Head Pandit of Fort William College on December 29, 1841. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Question 12 Comment on the rise of the novel in India.
Answer. The novel is a “story”, a long, long story but, then it is not a sequence of stories; it dramatizes life but it is not drama; it is written in prose form but it is not prose. So how do we define a novel? A novel can be defined in broad terms as a piece of prose fiction, which dramatizes life with the help of characters and situations. It presents some aspect of human experiences and creates real-life atmosphere that is often gripping. The test of a great novel lies in its universal appeal. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
In most European literature the word “roman” is used for the novel. “Roman” means “romance.” The earlier narratives were associated with the romatic . adventures of the heroes and the heroines. The novel now has achieved a wider scope and is no longer a “romance”, though the term “roman” stays on. The English name “novel” is derived from the Italian “novella” meaning “a little new thing Primarily we read novels for entertainment and also to learn about life. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Novels provide us insight into the different aspects of human existence, human psyche, social and familial relationships and the philosophy of life. We share the author’s experiences and learn from them. . . To answer the second question, we turn to the fact that a novel is an artistic creation of life. Art cannot be didactic, that is, it does not purport to teach directly. It is for us to learn from it, to derive our lesson. The novel will lose its charm if it becomes a sermon. It helps us indirectly by extending our consciousness and making us aware of the immense possibilities of life.
Question 13.SCQ: Write short notes on any two of the following: 6+6
a. Raja Rammohun Roy
Answer. Ram Mohan Roy was born in Radhanagar, Hooghly District, Bengal Presidency. His great grandfather Krishnakanta Bandyopadhyay was a Rarhi Kulin (noble) Brahmin. Among Kulin Brahmins – descendants of the six families of Brahmins imported from Kannauj by Ballal Sen in the 12th century – those from the Rarhi district of West Bengal were notorious in the 19th century for living off dowries by marrying several women. Kulinism was a synonym for polygamy and the dowry system, both of which Rammohan campaigned against. His father, Ramkanta, was a Vaishnavite, while his mother, Tarini Devi, was from a Shaivite family.
He was a great scholar of Sanskrit, Persian and English languages and also knew Arabic, Latin and Greek. One parent prepared him for the occupation of a scholar, the Shastri, while the other secured for him all the worldly advantages needed to launch a career in the laukik or worldly sphere of public administration. Torn between these two parental ideals from early childhood, Ram Mohan vacillated between the two for the rest of his life. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Ram Mohan Roy was married three times. His first wife died early. He had two sons, Radhaprasad in 1800, and Ramaprasad in 1812 with his second wife, who died in 1824. Roy’s third wife outlived him. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The nature and content of Ram Mohan Roy’s early education is disputed. One view is that Ram Mohan started his formal education in the village pathshala where he learned Bengali and some Sanskrit and Persian. Later he is said to have studied Persian and Arabic in a madrasa in Patna and after that he was sent to Benares to learn the intricacies of Sanskrit and Hindu scripture, including the Vedas and Upanishads. The dates of his time in both these places are uncertain. However, it is believed that he was sent to Patna when he was nine years old and two years later he went to Benares.
b. Ryotwari Settlement
The type of revenue settlement where the cultivator individually acquired ownership rights in land was known as ryotwari. The colonial administrators like Thomas Munro and Alexander Read opposed the existence of intermediaries between cultivators and the state. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
They favoured a direct settlement of land revenue with the cultivator or raiyat (The Arabic word raiyat, often used for peasants in pre-British sources, actually meant ‘subjects’). The Utilitarian doctrine which was the dominant ideology prevailing in the Company’s administrative circles at this juncture was based on the principle of appropriating could be calculated if the peasant’s cost of production was known.
The land revenue administrators could then simply subtract this cost of production from the grass produce to arrive at the figure of the net produce. But dealing with each and every cultivator meant the need for an elaborate machinery of revenue administration down to village level. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The colonial state, however, stood to gain financially as there would be no intermediary group appropriating a part of the agricultural surplus and it could periodically revise land-revenue demand after 2030 years. Here, it is important to point out that village-level state officials had existed in pre-British forms of administration in the Western and Southern India. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
For example, in Maratha polity, the village-level Brahmin Kulkarni kept the accurate and records while non-Brahmin Patils enjoyed legal and policing powers. These officials were paid by the state for their services. Initially, the colonial state thought of eliminating them or reducing their power but soon realized that it could disturb the structure of the village community. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Hence, in many Ryotwari areas, these officials were either retained or allowed to evolve into proprietor cultivators. The main source of their sustenance was inam land. Inams were grants of land for a specific purpose and were tax-free assignments. An implicit policy to retain the pre-existing landed magnates was obviously followed to win their support. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
c. Afghan Wars of the British
The same law governs armed conflict insofar as one government has been joined by a paramilitary organization that has been integrated into the government’s armed forces. The military portion of al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, sometimes referred to as the 55th Brigade, appears to have such an integrated relationship with Taliban military forces. Quite possibly, besides the traditional human rights law, the Protocol II definition of a Combatant, and the general minimum protection of Article 75 should apply in each case taken in its context.
Afghanistan However, international humanitarian law does apply to certain armed conflicts between states and non-state actors, such as insurgents in a civil war. The International Committee of the Red Cross, in its Commentaries on Article 3 Common to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, describes the understanding in this regard of the states that negotiated this provision. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
They believed, according to the lCRC, that a conflict with a rebel group would amount to an armed conflict governed by international humanitarian law insofar as the group is organized, has a responsible command, acts on a determinate territory, and is capable of respecting and ensuring respect for humanitarian law. As a loose network of individuals and groups said to be operating in some sixty countries, al-Qaeda appears unlikely to meet these requirements, at least outside Afghanistan.
Even when military force is used against non-state actors that lack these attributes, Human Rights Watch maintains that the basic principles enshrined in international humanitarian law should still be upheld as a minimum standard. The Commentaries of the International Committee of the Red Cross also state that the fundamental guarantees of Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions would apply even ‘if non-state combatants lacked all the hallmarks of classic rebel forces. Although the ICRC commentary addresses civil wars against insurgents, the same rationale should apply to an international conflict against non-state actors the nature of the Maratha state IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
Imperialist historiography generally characterised the 18th century Maratha dominatian as chaotic and anarchic. On the other hand, in attempt to develop Nationalist historiography, several Maratha scholars saw the Maratha state as the last reincarnation of the Hindu empire. Irfan Habib’s thesis is that the Maratha movement was essentially a zamindar uprising of the imperial ruling class (mansabdars and jagirdars) of the Mughal Empire.
It is the zamindar context of the Maratha state that he underlines. Satish Chandra locates the successful bid for regional independence by the Marathas in the crisis of the Mughal jagirdari system which failed to balance income and consumption C.A. Bayly notes the emergence of three wamor states-Marathas, ~kids’ and Jets and argues that they reflected popular or peasant insurgency directed in part against the Indo-Muslim aristocracy. The Marathas, he elaborates, drew their strength from the ordinary peasant pastoralist castes. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment
The Brahmin administrators who were On the ascendant pictured the Marathas state a classic “Brahmin” kingdom, protecting the holy places and sacred cattle. In Andre Wink’s analysis the processes of fitness were central to social and political life in the Maratha state system. Characteristically this implied making use of existing political conflicts through a combination of coercion and conciliation, as opposed to pure military operations. IGNOU EHI-05 Solved Assignment